The invisible women of the Great Depression

The Great Depression, women made up 25% of the workforce, but the job more unstable, temporary or seasonal than men, and the unemployment rate much it was greater. There was also a strong cultural prejudice and believes that "women are not working," and in fact, many who are employed full time are often called themselves "homemakers". Neither of people, labor unions or government branch was prepared to accept the reality of working women, and this distortion caused by female intense hardship of the Great Depression.

was in 1930 particularly difficult to single, divorced or widowed woman, but it was even harder for women who were not white. Women's color had to overcome sexual and racial stereotypes. The black women in the North reached an astounding 42.9% unemployment, while 23.2%. White women were out of work, according to the 1937 census. The South, black and white women are equally unemployed is 26%. By contrast, the unemployment rate for black and white men in the North (38.9% / 18.1%) and South (18% / 16%) was also lower than female counterparts.

The financial situation Harlem was bleak even before the Great Depression. But then, the black working class in the emerging wholesale layoffs decimated the North Black industrial workers. To have a black and a woman is alone hold a job or find another almost impossible. The work of racial hierarchies are replaced by black women in domestic work or waitressing, white women, now desperate to work and willing to steep wage cuts.

Survival Contractors

At the beginning of the Depression, while one study found that homeless women were the most likely in the case of factory and service workers, domestics, garment workers, waitresses and beauticians; Another suggested that the cosmetics industry was a major source of income for black women. These women, later called "survival entrepreneurs," became self-employed, must find solutions for independent living in a desperate. "

Replaced White women in traditional household chores cooks, maids, nurses and laundresses, more skilled and educated black women are so desperate, & # 39; to actually offered to sell the so-called" slave markets & # 39; – street corner where black women were gathering to wait for White housewives who came daily to pick and bid down wages & # 39; & # 39; (Boyd, Drake and Cayton 2000 quotes, 1945/1962: 246). In fact, the domestic national service is very difficult, if not impossible, to coordinate with family responsibilities as domestic servants were usually call & # 39; & # 39; day and night & # 39; & # 39; and it was tied to "" the arbitrary power of the individual employer. & # 39; & # 39;



Inn Keepers and hairdressers


There are two occupations sought out black women, in order to find a solution to the need for income (or barter items) and household tasks in the northern cities of the Great Depression: (1) bed and breakfast accommodation and house keeping; and (2) hairdressing and beauty culture.

The "Migration" in 1915-1930, thousand blacks in the south, especially the young, single men, streamed into northern cities, looking for places to stay temporarily while they searched the homes and workplaces. Housing opportunities created by these immigrants working-class black women -Now unemployment to pay the rent.

According to one estimate, & # 39; & # 39; at least one-third & # 39; Black family in the northern city was a tenant or tenants of the Great Migration (Thomas, 1992: 93, quoted Henri, 1976). The demand was so high, many snowboarders were held, which reported a survey of the northern black families that & # 39; & # 39; Seventy-five percent of the Negro tenant homes are so many that they are really near. & # 39; & # 39;

Women were usually at the center of these webs of family and community networks in the black community:

"I & # 39; undertook the largest part of the burden & # 39; & # 39 ;, to help a novice can find temporary housing women played & # 39;. & # 39; connective tissue and lead in & # 39; northern black communities, not only because they considered the traditional "women's work", but also because taking in boarders and the residents helped black women combine domestic work free, income-generating activities (Grossman, 1989: 133). in addition, and supplies for house keeping is often combined with other types of self Some black women who kept boarders and lodgers also earned money by. that artificial flowers and lampshades home "(Boyd, 2000)

In addition, 1890-1940", "barbers, hairdressers & # 39;. & # 39; It was the largest business segment of the black population, and that approximately one third of the population in 1940 (Boyd, 2000 Oak cites, 1949: 48).

"black people being attracted to these occupations as" White barbers, hairdressers and beauticians were willing or style the hair of black people, or to use them by the hair and cosmetics. So black barbers, hairdressers, beauticians and had a & # 39; & # 39; protected consumer market & # 39; & # 39; White on "social distance or the Blacks and the special needs of Black consumers. Accordingly, there were these black entrepreneurs protected from external competitors and not monopolize the disciplines within the cosmetics and hairdressing in their community.

Black women who work search believed that the man's appearance was an important aspect of the job search. black self-help organizations in northern cities, such as the urban League and the National Council of Negro women, stressed the importance of good care for the newly arrived black women in the south, advises that beautiful hair . and clean nails when searching for work of all, the women were told not to wear & # 39; & # 39; head rag & # 39; & # 39; and & # 39; & # 39; dust caps & # 39; public (Boyd 2000 cites Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962: 247, 301; Grossman, 1989. 150-151)

These warnings have been particularly important to those who were looking for secretarial or mental work, the need for a straight black women hair and light skin that is every chance that these positions. Despite the hard times, beauty salons and barber shops were the most viable black-owned enterprises and black communities (for example, Boyd, Drake and Cayton 2000 quotes, 1945/1962: 450-451).

Black female entrepreneurs in the urban North also opened stores and restaurants, modest savings & # 39; & # 39 ;, like living in a restraint device & # 39; & # 39; (Boyd, 2000 cites Frazier, 1949: 405). Called & # 39; & # 39; Depression enterprises "," extremist businesses often qualified enterprises to operate even more of & # 39; & # 39; houses, cellars and old buildings "(Boyd, Drake and Cayton 2000 quotes, 1945/1962: 454).

" Food stores and eating and drinking places were the most common of these businesses, because if you do not the owners still live in their stocks. "

" Protestant whites only "

These enterprises were the need for black women than for hiring preference over whites sharply Depression. The Philadelphia Public Employment Office, 68% of job commands defined in 1932 and 1933, the women "whites only." In New York, black women were forced to go to a separate unemployment offices in Harlem to look for a job. Black churches and church-related institutions', the traditional source using the black community, were overwhelmed by demand during the 1930s. Municipal shelters, is required to "accept everyone," still meant that Catholics and African-American women were 'particularly difficult to place. "

Nobody knows the number of homeless black women in the early thirty's, but there was no doubt significant and invisible to the mostly white detectives. Instead, the media chose to focus on and publish the fate of White, homeless, middle-class "white collar" workers, as, in 1931 and 1932, unemployment spread of this middle class. White-collar and college-educated women, usually accustomed "to regular employment and a stable residence" became the "new poor." I do not know that the homeless proportion of these women, too educated guesses, but all the homeless in urban centers and 10% that of women. However, we know that the demand for "female brain" shelters climbed a little more than 3,000 in 1920 to 56 808 by 1932, one city and another, in 1929 -1930, the demand has increased 270%.

"Having an address in a luxury now …"

Even the number of them, however, were not the last stop on the way towards homelessness and was aimed at "normal destitute" of women, and will always be those who were homeless for the first time. Finally some numbers in shelters, but have not yet registered with any agency. Resources were few. Emergency home was limited relief to families with dependent children until 1934. "Having an address in a luxury now," the unemployed college woman told the social worker in 1932.

These newly destitute urban women were shocked and dazed who It drifted into an unemployment office to the next, resting Grand Central and Pennsylvania station and he rode the subway all night (the "five cents room"), or sleeping in the park and ate a penny kitchens. Slow to ask for help and fearful, and ashamed to ask for charity, these women are often on the verge of starvation before asked for help. There were, according to one report, it is often the "saddest and most difficult to help." These women are "starved to slow furnished rooms. They sold the furniture, their clothes and their bodies."

emancipated woman, not myths

were the cultural myth that women "do not work", they were not invisible. Political voice is silent. Gender role demanded that women continue to be "someone poor relation" who returned at the time of the rural homestead of trouble to help in the home, and were given shelter. They cultivate idyllic, mythical pre-industrial family houses were large enough to accommodate everyone. The new reality is much bleaker. Urban housing, not more than two or three rooms, a mandatory "maiden aunts" or "single cousins" to "shift for themselves." We stayed in the family home is often severe troubles in often tense, overworked, overcrowded households of their own.

In addition, some other African-Americans than they were in the country to return to its roots. And it can be assumed that once a woman has been emancipated and tasting success is "malleable". The female role had been out-of-date myth, but an effective one. The "new woman" of the roaring twenties now left without a social face of the Great Depression. Home without – the quintessential element of womanhood – was, paradoxically, ignored and invisible.

"… neighborhood has been stretched beyond human endurance."

In reality, more than half of employed women never married, others divorced, abandoned, separated or claimed to be a widow. We do not know how many were lesbian women. Some had dependent parents and siblings, who have relied on their support. Less was the children who are living in a large family. Women's wages are historically low for most female professions, and allowed little capacity in "emergency" savings, but most of these women are financially independent. Milwaukee, for example, 60% of those seeking help were self-supporting in 1929 in New York, the figure was 85%. The work to be performed is often the most volatile and at risk. Some months were unemployed, others for a year or more. The savings and insurance gone, they were knocked out of the informal social networks. A social worker at the end of 1931, testified to a Senate committee that "neighborhood has been stretched beyond not only the capacity but beyond human endurance."

due Older women are often discriminated against on the age and the long history of living outside of traditional family systems. When the work was not available, it is often defined as one job in Philadelphia, the demand for "white stenographers and clerks, to 25 (age)"

The Invisible Woman

The effects of the Great Depression in women, then as now, was invisible to the eye. The tangible proof breadlines, Hoovervilles and men selling apples on the street corner, does not contain images of urban women. Unemployment, hunger and homelessness was considered a "male problem", as well as anxiety and despair was measured in that way. Photographic images, news and destitute urban women are ignored, or not obvious. It was considered unseemly to a homeless woman, and often kept from the public, ushered in by the back door entrances, and feed himself.

Part of the problem lay expectations. While homeless men puffed intervals during periods of economic crisis since the depression of the 1890s onwards, a large number of homeless women "own" as a new phenomenon. Public servants were prepared: they were without children, early, excluded emergency shelters. In the third year, more than 56,000 "bed" of a building with a capacity of 155 beds and six cribs submitted depression. Still, these numbers do not take into account the number of women turned away because they are not white and Protestant.

Just as the Great Depression wore just want a way to make money, these women were excluded from the "New Deal" work programs set up to help the unemployed. The men saw "breadwinners" the economy needs more economic resources. While information and charitable bodies finally did appear, they are often not sufficient demand.

because black women are especially hard times to participate in the mainstream economy of the Great Depression, they also have to find alternative employment in their community because of the unique patterns of migration occurred during this period. White women, by contrast, was a keyhole options when they were young and considerable skills, although their skin color alone any greater access to traditional employment was still available.

rejection of traditional female roles, and the desire for emancipation, but these women are low risk when the economy collapsed. In any case, single women, both black and white skin, were worse and were invisible to patients.

As we enter the second Great Depression, who will be the new "invisible homeless" and women as a group, fare better this time?



References:

Abelson, E. (2003 Spring2003). Women who are not men to work for them: Gender and homelessness, the Great Depression, 1930-1934. Feminist Studies, 29 (1), 104. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Boyd, R. (2000, December). Race, labor market disadvantage and Survivalist Entrepreneur: Black Women in the Urban Land during the Great Depression. Sociological Forum, 15 (4), 647-670. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Source by Kathy A. McMahon

Keystone Resort Vacation: Mountain House Vs River Run Base Area

Keystone Resort, Colorado home to world-class skiing terrain, amazing food, affordable cat skiing, three mountain peaks, and this is one of the few resorts in Colorado to offer night skiing, so one of the longest ski day around, offering visitors a huge bang for the buck one. It also hosts Kidtopia- festival where kids have a blast, which is involved into the fun activities just for them, including visiting and playing at the top of a huge snow fort in the mountains! Not to mention the countless other winter activities to enjoy such as snow tubing, ice skating, fine dining, sledding, live music, festivals, and more!

So we decided to visit Keystone this winter Now comes the hard part, where to stay? Keystone is a small town, about 3 miles long sits in a valley at the bottom of the mountain. Even the mountain is made up of three separate peaks lined up from north to south; Dercum, North Peak and Outback, each with its own unique terrain and features. Dercum Mountain in the farthest northern tip and it's front page offers only two access points across the mountain, River Run and Mountain House.

The two base areas, the new River Run two and is known as the main village where both the Gondola and Summit Express chairlift pickup and take you to the top of Dercum Mountain. This pedestrian area of ​​the village just walking area, there are many cute boutiques, ski shops, cafes and restaurants. There is a day in addition to an external audit of the ski gondola and the bathroom and inside the warehouse rental and ticket office. The only thing it really lacks a central base area "ski lodge" but her constituents are plenty of restaurants within walking distance of the slopes. The Kickapoo Tavern is a fun place to have lunch or after skiing to a beer, a large outdoor terrace overlooking the slopes. Some of the fun features of the River Run Village Square Dercum the outdoor ice rink, a variety of sculptures throughout the village, the many unique shops and outdoor gas fire pit is perfect for warming up a cold day. There is a cluster of River Run accommodation options, all of which are yards from the gondola, including Springs, Jackpine, Arapahoe, Black Bear, Silver Mill, Dakota, Buffalo, Expedition Station and Red Hawk Lodge. The two true ski-in, ski-out properties are Lone Eagle and Keystone Timbers, which is actually across the Snake River Bridge just past the gondola and up the slopes a few meters from the village.

Both bases are home to ski school, ski rental and service. Mountain House is a great starting area with a magic carpet lift and easy. You can find a similar home in the middle of mountain terrain gondola stop and near the top of a teacher. Although you will not find the pedestrian "mall" area with a wide range of shopping and dining options at River Run, you will find that Mountain House is a true ski area complete with a lodge covered warehouses, cafes, bars, ski supply shop and bathroom; fit the needs of every skier. You will also find a lift ticket in two near the base of the chairlift, Peru and Argentina. The lift takes you to the top of Peru Area-51 and some green and blue runs, and you can return to the River Run base area of ​​only a single pass or a quick hop on the mountain in the middle of Montezuma lift to reach the top.

Accommodation prices Mountain House would prefer a bit lower than River Run, while most of the same comforts. Chateaux DuMont very popular and unique features, most rooms have a private hot tub Slopeside views! Slopeside condos another great option for Mountain House and only a few steps away from the lifts. There are quite a few properties here that the foot of the mountain in a fraction of the cost. If you feel the need to stop the main village, just ski down or a shuttle!

There are also plenty of accommodation in addition to the two main village. East Keystone Settlers Creek is one of the newest and most popular housing estates in the center and beautiful multi-story urban homes garage and beautiful views of the surrounding mountains. In the center, the area is "Minnie's Cabin", the central meeting place for recreation, complete with a heated outdoor pool, hot tub, pool table, grill and hangout area to host gatherings and barbecues.

Keystone Resort hosts a free resort shuttle that will take you almost anywhere you need to go served by the Keystone and most hotel complexes of the transfer. Most of the tours on the slopes of Keystone from anywhere in 10 minutes or less! There is also a free county-wide transit system called the Summit Stage which is very easy to get around without a car in the high country. The Denver International Airport is just only 90 minutes away and many shuttle companies will take you to and from the airport.

If you are willing to stay outside the main village at Keystone, you will often be able to find better deals and prices for accommodation. Be sure you choose a property management company which picks up the exact property you staying so you will know what to expect and plan your trip in advance. If you have a large group, ask your owner rents a private home! Wherever you stay Keystone, you will find it very easy to find everything they are looking for and more!

Source by Alyssa Hubbard

Keystone Resort Vacation: Mountain House Vs River Run Base Area

Keystone Resort, Colorado home to world-class skiing terrain, amazing food, affordable cat skiing, three mountain peaks, and this is one of the few resorts in Colorado to offer night skiing, so one of the longest ski day around, offering visitors a huge bang for the buck one. It also hosts Kidtopia- festival where kids have a blast, which is involved into the fun activities just for them, including visiting and playing at the top of a huge snow fort in the mountains! Not to mention the countless other winter activities to enjoy such as snow tubing, ice skating, fine dining, sledding, live music, festivals, and more!

So we decided to visit Keystone this winter Now comes the hard part, where to stay? Keystone is a small town, about 3 miles long sits in a valley at the bottom of the mountain. Even the mountain is made up of three separate peaks lined up from north to south; Dercum, North Peak and Outback, each with its own unique terrain and features. Dercum Mountain in the farthest northern tip and it's front page offers only two access points across the mountain, River Run and Mountain House.

The two base areas, the new River Run two and is known as the main village where both the Gondola and Summit Express chairlift pickup and take you to the top of Dercum Mountain. This pedestrian area of ​​the village just walking area, there are many cute boutiques, ski shops, cafes and restaurants. There is a day in addition to an external audit of the ski gondola and the bathroom and inside the warehouse rental and ticket office. The only thing it really lacks a central base area "ski lodge" but her constituents are plenty of restaurants within walking distance of the slopes. The Kickapoo Tavern is a fun place to have lunch or after skiing to a beer, a large outdoor terrace overlooking the slopes. Some of the fun features of the River Run Village Square Dercum the outdoor ice rink, a variety of sculptures throughout the village, the many unique shops and outdoor gas fire pit is perfect for warming up a cold day. There is a cluster of River Run accommodation options, all of which are yards from the gondola, including Springs, Jackpine, Arapahoe, Black Bear, Silver Mill, Dakota, Buffalo, Expedition Station and Red Hawk Lodge. The two true ski-in, ski-out properties are Lone Eagle and Keystone Timbers, which is actually across the Snake River Bridge just past the gondola and up the slopes a few meters from the village.

Both bases are home to ski school, ski rental and service. Mountain House is a great starting area with a magic carpet lift and easy. You can find a similar home in the middle of mountain terrain gondola stop and near the top of a teacher. Although you will not find the pedestrian "mall" area with a wide range of shopping and dining options at River Run, you will find that Mountain House is a true ski area complete with a lodge covered warehouses, cafes, bars, ski supply shop and bathroom; fit the needs of every skier. You will also find a lift ticket in two near the base of the chairlift, Peru and Argentina. The lift takes you to the top of Peru Area-51 and some green and blue runs, and you can return to the River Run base area of ​​only a single pass or a quick hop on the mountain in the middle of Montezuma lift to reach the top.

Accommodation prices Mountain House would prefer a bit lower than River Run, while most of the same comforts. Chateaux DuMont very popular and unique features, most rooms have a private hot tub Slopeside views! Slopeside condos another great option for Mountain House and only a few steps away from the lifts. There are quite a few properties here that the foot of the mountain in a fraction of the cost. If you feel the need to stop the main village, just ski down or a shuttle!

There are also plenty of accommodation in addition to the two main village. East Keystone Settlers Creek is one of the newest and most popular housing estates in the center and beautiful multi-story urban homes garage and beautiful views of the surrounding mountains. In the center, the area is "Minnie's Cabin", the central meeting place for recreation, complete with a heated outdoor pool, hot tub, pool table, grill and hangout area to host gatherings and barbecues.

Keystone Resort hosts a free resort shuttle that will take you almost anywhere you need to go served by the Keystone and most hotel complexes of the transfer. Most of the tours on the slopes of Keystone from anywhere in 10 minutes or less! There is also a free county-wide transit system called the Summit Stage which is very easy to get around without a car in the high country. The Denver International Airport is just only 90 minutes away and many shuttle companies will take you to and from the airport.

If you are willing to stay outside the main village at Keystone, you will often be able to find better deals and prices for accommodation. Be sure you choose a property management company which picks up the exact property you staying so you will know what to expect and plan your trip in advance. If you have a large group, ask your owner rents a private home! Wherever you stay Keystone, you will find it very easy to find everything they are looking for and more!

Source by Alyssa Hubbard

The importance of Hotels and Tourism Hotels promoting

In modern times, people spend their vacations has undergone a big change. People like to spend good times with family and a friend, while at the same time exploring the various tourist locations around the world. As a result, the world has seen unprecedented growth in tourism, which in turn also resulted in a huge growth in the hotel and accommodation.

Comfortable hotels and accommodation play a very important role in popularizing any tourist destination. If a person who is far enough away from home, you get to enjoy the same facilities and comfort as you enjoy in your home, it will be obliged attached to the place. On the other hand, when the economy finally in a place where hotels and accommodation is not satisfactory, it is very likely that he might never return to that place.

Perhaps that is why, hotels and accommodation made available to various tourist places emphasis shifted from maximum comfort to tourists at reasonable prices. It is also very important to provide comfortable accommodation for people of different economic backgrounds. While five-star hotels also cater to the needs of affluent visitors, small and medium-sized hotels and lodging houses are available for use in a middle-class travelers.

Blog reviews also essential that information is available in hotels and tourist accommodation use of that site is available to people very easily. This can not be a better option than the Internet, as most tourist gain information about hotels and accommodation on this through the media only. The otherwise exposed booklets containing information about the hotels and accommodation available rail and bus stations.

The information provided to tourists should be detailed and accurate. The notification shall include relevant information room rental, room types and catering services, look at the time, pick and drop facilities, etc. More information in the field of major tourist spots must be ensured in both net and brochures to promote not only the hotel, but also a tourist spot.

Source by Suman Ahliya